Nilai Dari 6 Sin 112 5 Sin 22 5

Nilai Dari 6 Sin 112 5 Sin 22 5

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POLI 112 POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS Session 10: Pressure Groups Lecturer: Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO, Department of Political Science College of Education School of Continuing and Distance Education 2014/2015 – 2016/2017

Pressure Groups Defined A pressure group is an organized group of individuals who at

Pressure Groups Defined A pressure group is an organized group of individuals who at any point in time may seek to influence the policies of government in their own chosen direction but unlike Political Parties, they are never themselves prepares to directly run the affairs of the government of their country. Examples of pressure groups in Ghana include the Ghana Bar Association, Ghana Medical Association, University Teachers Association, National Union of Ghana Students, etc. These are also called Interest Groups because they exist and operate to promote the interest of their members Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO, Dept of Political Science, UG Slide 2

It is for example practiced in Britain while the Theories of Origin of Pressure

It is for example practiced in Britain while the Theories of Origin of Pressure Groups • The Group Theory – This basically states that in general, all politics is a group conflict and political decisions are arrived at as a result of the conflict between organized pressure groups. Group theory like other Political Science theories raises very complex issues and is presented in a way which is extremely difficult to grasp. But basically, they try to answer the question as to how pressure groups originated. • Social Forces or Social Equilibrium Theory. This is one of the earliest versions of the Group Theory, propounded by David Truman. The theory states that social change of the kind that happens when a society moves from an agricultural to the industrial level of development disturbs in a profound way the normal equilibrium or balance of society. • People therefore organize themselves into a form of association to defend and protect their values and goals in order to restore a certain degree of social balance Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of Political Science, UG. Slide 3

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Theories of Origin of Pressure Groups (Cont) • Incentive Theory – Mancur Olson reasoned

Theories of Origin of Pressure Groups (Cont) • Incentive Theory – Mancur Olson reasoned that social change by itself would not lead people to form pressure groups. People form pressure groups only if there is some incentive to motivate the people to join. The incentive to join a group exists when two conditions are fulfilled. First, Economic benefits to be gained by members. Second, members join because of social pressure Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of Political Science, UG Slide 4

Functions of Pressure Groups • Putting together the various interest of its members –

Functions of Pressure Groups • Putting together the various interest of its members – Interest aggregation • Making know the interest and challenges confronting its members with the view to seeking redress and attention of policy makers – Interest articulation • Offering expertise view and knowledge on what can be done to tackle national crisis when needed • Keeping governments on their toes and making them accountable and responsive to the needs of the citizenry Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of Political Science, UG Slide 5

The Problems Pressure Groups Create • Through needless strikes and demonstrations, they can paralyze

The Problems Pressure Groups Create • Through needless strikes and demonstrations, they can paralyze the economy of the country and reduce productivity • Their actions can also make the country ungovernable • They are sometimes selfish as they work to promote the interest of only those who belong to them Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of Political Science, UG Slide 6

The Problems Pressure Groups Create (cont) • Moreover, pressure groups exercise non-legitimate powers in

The Problems Pressure Groups Create (cont) • Moreover, pressure groups exercise non-legitimate powers in that their leaders unlike politicians are not publicly accountable. They seek to influence leaders who have been elected but they themselves may be representing a small minute section of the entire populace • Their activities also promote elitism as its members are drawn from a certain class of society Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of Political Science, UG Slide 7

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Some Images of Activities of Pressure Groups Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of

Some Images of Activities of Pressure Groups Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of Political Science, UG Slide 8

Image of Pressure Group Activism • . Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of

Image of Pressure Group Activism • . Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of Political Science, UG Slide 9

Image of Pressure Group Activism on Radio Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of

Image of Pressure Group Activism on Radio Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of Political Science, UG Slide 10

Tools Used to Champion The Interest of Pressure Groups • • Strikes, Demonstrations, petitions,

Tools Used to Champion The Interest of Pressure Groups • • Strikes, Demonstrations, petitions, protests, boycotts, lobbying Threats Assassinations Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of Political Science, UG Slide 11

Reading List • Refer to Unit 5, pp. 87 to 100 of Poli 112

Reading List • Refer to Unit 5, pp. 87 to 100 of Poli 112 (Political Institutions) Modules • Gyampo, R. E. V. The state of Political Institutions in Ghana, (Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing Inc. 2012) pp. 147 -158 Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of Political Science, UG Slide 12

Concluding Remark THANK YOU R. E. V GYAMPO Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept

Concluding Remark THANK YOU R. E. V GYAMPO Dr. R. E. V. GYAMPO Dept of Political Science, UG Slide 13

Nilai Dari 6 Sin 112 5 Sin 22 5

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