Glosarium Biologi

Glosarium Biologi.

What is biology?

Biology is the study of all living organisms, including this adorable precious stone issues and the institute information technology’southward perched on.

(Epitome credit: Shutterstock)

Biological science is the study of life. The word “biology” is derived from the Greek words “bios” (meaning life) and “logos” (meaning “report”). In full general, biologists study the structure, office, growth, origin,
and distribution of living organisms.

Biological science is of import considering information technology helps us understand how living things work and how they function and interact on multiple levels, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica
(opens in new tab)
. Advances in biology take helped scientists do things such as develop improve medicines and treatments for diseases, understand how a changing environment might bear upon plants and animals, produce enough nutrient for a growing human population and predict how eating new food or sticking to an exercise regimen might touch on our bodies.

The basic principles of modern biology

Four principles unify modern biology, according to the book “Managing Science” (Springer New York, 2010):

  1. Cell theory is the principle that all living things are made of primal units called
    cells, and all cells come from preexisting cells.
  2. Gene theory is the principle that all living things have Dna, molecules that lawmaking the structures and functions of cells and get passed to offspring.
  3. Homeostasis is the principle that all living things maintain a state of balance that enables organisms to survive in their environs.
  4. Evolution is the principle that describes how all living things tin can change to have traits that enable them to survive better in their environments. These traits result from random mutations in the organism’s genes that are “selected” via a process called natural option. During natural option, organisms that have traits ameliorate-suited for their environment take college rates of survival, and then laissez passer those traits to their offspring.

The many branches of biology

Although there are only four unifying principles, biological science covers a broad range of topics that are cleaved into many disciplines and subdisciplines.

On a high level, the different fields of biological science can each exist thought of as the study of one blazon of organism, according to “Blackie’s Dictionary of Biology
(opens in new tab)
” (Southward Chand, 2014). For example, zoology is the written report of animals, botany is the study of plants and microbiology is the study of microorganisms.

Baca :   Diketahui X 2

A botanist is a biologist who studies plants.

(Image credit: Shutterstock)

Within those broader fields, many biologists specialize in researching a specific topic or trouble. For case, a scientist may study beliefs of a sure fish species, while some other scientist may research the
and chemical mechanisms behind the behavior.

In that location are numerous branches and subdisciplines of biology, merely hither is a brusk list of some of the more broad fields that fall under the umbrella of biology:

The written report of the chemical processes that take place in or are related to living things, co-ordinate to the Biochemical Guild
(opens in new tab)
. For example, pharmacology is a type of biochemistry research that focuses on studying how drugs collaborate with chemicals in the body, as described in a 2010 review in the journal Biochemistry.

The study of how organisms collaborate with their environs. For example, an ecologist may study how
behavior is affected by humans living nearby.

The study of heredity. Geneticists study how genes are passed down past parents to their offspring, and how they vary from person to person. For instance, scientists take identified several genes and genetic mutations that influence human being lifespan, as reported in a 2019 review published in the journal Nature Reviews Genetics
(opens in new tab)

The study of how living things work. Physiology, which is applicative to any living organism, “deals with the life-supporting functions and processes of living organisms or their parts,” according to Nature
(opens in new tab)
. Physiologists seek to sympathize biological processes, such as how a particular organ works, what its function is and how information technology’s affected by exterior stimuli. For example, physiologists have studied how listening to music tin can cause concrete changes
(opens in new tab)

in the
human body, such as a slower or faster
heart charge per unit, co-ordinate to the journal Psychological Health Furnishings of Musical Experiences
(opens in new tab)
. .

The multidisciplinary nature of biological science

Biological science is oftentimes researched in conjunction with other fields of written report, including
mathematics, engineering and the social sciences. Here are a few examples:

Baca :   Banyak Lingkaran Pada Pola Ke 10 Adalah

is the study of the development of life in the universe, including the search for extraterrestrial life, co-ordinate to NASA
(opens in new tab)
. This field incorporates principles of biological science with astronomy.

are biologists who incorporate archaeological techniques to study skeletal remains and derive insights about how people lived in the past, co-ordinate to George Stonemason University
(opens in new tab)

is the application of engineering principles to biological science and vice versa, co-ordinate to the Academy of California Berkeley
(opens in new tab)
. For instance, a bioengineer might develop a new medical technology that better images the inside of the torso, similar an improved
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
that scans the human trunk at a faster rate and higher resolution, or use biological knowledge to create artificial organs, co-ordinate to the journal Cell Transplant.

involves using biological systems to develop products, according to the Norwegian Academy of Science and Technology
(opens in new tab)
. For case, biotechnologists in Russia genetically engineered a better-tasting and more disease-resistant strawberry, which the researchers described in their 2007 report published in the journal Biotechnology and Sustainable Agriculture 2006 and Beyond
(opens in new tab)

employs the principles of physics to sympathize how biological systems work, according to the Biophysical Society
(opens in new tab)
. For example, biophysicists may study how genetic mutations leading to changes in
poly peptide
structure impacts poly peptide development, according to the Journal of the Royal Society

An illustration of protein

A 3d Illustration of the chain of amino acids that make upwardly protein.

(Image credit: Getty Images)

What exercise biologists do?

Biologists can work in many different fields, including research, healthcare, ecology conservation and art, according to the American Institute of Biological Sciences
(opens in new tab)
. Here are a few examples:

Biologists tin perform research in many types of settings. Microbiologists, for example, may written report bacterial cultures in a laboratory setting. Other biologists may perform field enquiry, where they detect animals or plants in their native habitat. Many biologists may work in the lab and in the field — for example, scientists may collect soil or h2o samples from the field and clarify them further in the  lab, like at North Carolina University’southward Soil and Water Lab
(opens in new tab)

Baca :   Berikut Yang Termasuk Asam Lemak Tidak Jenuh Adalah

Conservation: Biologists can help with efforts in environmental conservation past studying and determining how to protect and conserve the natural world for the futurity. For example, biologists may aid educate the public on the importance of preserving an animal’s natural habitat and participate in endangered species recovery programs to end the decline of an endangered species, co-ordinate to the U.Due south. Fish & Wildlife Service
(opens in new tab)

An ecologist doing as survey

An ecologist taking a water samples from a creek.

(Image credit: Getty Images)

Healthcare: People who report biological science can go along to work in healthcare, whether they work as doctors or nurses, join a pharmaceutical company to develop new drugs and vaccines, inquiry the efficacy of medical treatments or become veterinarians to help treat sick animals, co-ordinate to the American Institute of Biological Sciences
(opens in new tab)

Biologists who also take a groundwork in art have both the technical knowledge and artistic skill to create visuals that will communicate circuitous biological data to a broad variety of audiences. One instance of this is in medical illustration, in which an illustrator may perform groundwork research, collaborate with experts, and discover a medical procedure to create an accurate visual of a trunk office, according to the Clan of Medical Illustrators
(opens in new tab)

Additional resources

If you’re curious virtually but how broad-reaching biology is, The University of Northward Carolina at Pembroke
(opens in new tab)

has listed a number of biology subdisciplines on their website. Interested in a career in biology? Check out some options at the American Plant of Biological Sciences
(opens in new tab)



Lornande Loss Woodruff, “History of Biological science”, The Scientific Monthly, Volume 12, March 1921,
(opens in new tab)

P.N. Campbell, “Biology in Profile: A Guide to the Many Branches of Biological science
(opens in new tab)
”, Elsevier, Oct 2013.

The University of North Carolina at Pembroke, “Biology Sub-disciplines
(opens in new tab)
”, Oct 2010.

Academy of Minnesota Duluth, “What is Biological science?
(opens in new tab)
”, January 2022.

Eric J. Simon et al, “Campbell Essential Biological science
(opens in new tab)
”, Pearson Pedagogy, January 2018.

Alane Lim holds a Ph.D. in materials science and engineering science from Northwestern University and a available’s degrees in chemistry and cognitive science from Johns Hopkins Academy. She also has over five years of experience in writing almost science for a variety of audiences. Her work has appeared on the science YouTube channel SciShow, the reference website ThoughtCo, and the American Institute of Physics.

Glosarium Biologi


Check Also

Contoh Soal Perkalian Vektor

Contoh Soal Perkalian Vektor. Web log Koma – Setelah mempelajari beberapa operasi hitung pada vektor …