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TENSES

Jika kita membicarakan Tenses, kita berbicara tentang time (waktu). Secara umum, ada 3 macam Tenses: Present, Past, dan Future yang masing-masing mempunyai 4 bagian, yaitu : Simple, Con¬tinuous, Perfect, dan Perfect Continuous.

Simple Present Tense
Simple Present Tense berhubungan dengan habitual (kebiasaan) dan factual (kebenaran umum). Kita bisa menam-bahkan Adverb of Frequency: always (selalu), often (sering), usually (biasanya), sometimes (kadang-kadang), seldom (jarang), never (tidak pernah).

Habitual (kebiasaan):
(+) Agnes always teaches English at SMA 8 everyday.
(-) Agnes doesn’t always teach English at SMA 8 everyday.
(?) Does Agnes always teach English at SMA 8 everyday?

Factual (kebenaran umum):
(+) It snows in Japan.
(-) It doesn’t snow in Japan. (?) Does it snow in Japan?

Yang perlu diingat, setelah do atau does harus diikuti oleh Infinitive Verb (Verb 1).

Present Continuous Tense
Present Continuous Tense membica¬rakan peristiwa yang terjadi tepat pada saat sekarang. Tanda waktu (time signal) yang biasa digunakan adalah: now, at this time, at this moment, look, listen.

Present Continuous Tense
Present Continuous Tense membica¬rakan peristiwa yang terjadi tepat pada saat sekarang. Tanda waktu (time signal) yang biasa digunakan adalah: now, at this time, at this moment, look, listen.

Present Perfect Tense
Membicarakan tentang suatu kejadian di masa lampau yang berhubungan dengan Present. Tanda waktu yang biasa diguna¬kan adalah: already (untuk kalimat positif), yet (untuk kalimat negatif), for (selama), since (sejak), lately/recently (akhir-akhir ini), never (tidak pernah), once, twice, three times

Contoh :
(+) I have done my homework already.
(-) I haven’t done my homework yet.
(?) Have you already done your homework?

Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Membicarakan tentang kejadian yang telah dan masih berlangsung sampai seka-rang.

Contoh :
(+)Nina and Giri have been living in Cibubur for 10 years.
(-) Nina and Giri have not been living in Cibubur for 10 years.
(?) Have Nina and Giri been living in Cibubur for 10 years?

5. Simple Past Tense
Membicarakan tentang suatu kejadian yang terjadi di waktu lampau. Yang sering digunakan adalah yesterday, last week/last year, 2 days ago, in 2006, from 2001 to 2006, just now (barusan/baru saja).

Contoh :
(+) Mrs Sofrida went to Depok yesterday.
(-) Mrs Sofrida didn’t go to Depok yesterday.
(?) Did Mrs Sofrida go to Depok yesterday?

6. Past Continuous Tense
Membicarakan tentang 2 kejadian yang terjadi di waktu lampau. Ketika suatu kejadian berlangsung, ada kejadian lain yang terjadi.

(+)Mr Purnomo was sleeping when Alif arrived at home.
(-) Mr Purnomo was not sleeping when Alif arrived at home.
(?) Was Mr Purnomo sleeping when Alif arrived at home?

Tense ini juga bisa membicarakan ten¬tang dua kejadian yang sama-sama sedang berlangsung di waktu lampau
Contoh :
(+)Adi was typing a letter while his mother was cooking.
(-) Adi was not typing a letter while his mother was cooking.
(?) Was Adi typing a letter while his mother was cooking?

Past Perfect Tense
Membicarakan 2 kejadian yang terjadi di waktu lampau. Kedua kejadian tersebut terjadi berurutan

Contoh :
• I watched TV last night.
• Then, I slept.
Kedua kalimat tersebut bisa digabung

menjadi :
• After I had watched TV, I slept.
• I had watched TV before I slept

8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Tense ini membicarakan tentang ke-tika suatu kejadian sedang berlangsung di waktu lampau, ada kejadian lain yang terjadi.

Contoh :
(+)Arif had been studying English for 2 hours when Fenti came.
(-) Arif had not been studying English for 2 hours when Fenti came.
(?) Had Arif been studying English for 2 hours when Fenti came?

9. Simple Future Tense
Membicarakan tentang suatu peristiwa yang akan terjadi.

Contoh :
(+) Mrs Didah will make a report tomorrow.
(-) Mrs Didah will not make a report tomorrow.

(?) Will Mrs Didah make a report tomorrow?

10.Future Continuous Tense
Membicarakan tentang suatu peris-tiwa yang akan dan sedang berlangsung di masa depan.

Contoh :
(+) Andi will be studying hard at 2 o’clock tomorrow.
(-) Andi will not be studying hard at 2 o’clock tomorrow.
(?) Will Andi be studying hard at 2 o’clock tomorrow?

11. Future Perfect Tense
Membicarakan suatu kegiatan yang akan telah terjadi dan selesai pada saat kegiatan lain berlangsung

Contoh :
(+) My mother will have finished cooking by the time I arrive.
(-) My mother will not have finished cooking by the time I arrive.
(-) Will my mother have finished cooking by the time I arrive?

12. Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Membicarakan kegiatan yang akan telah dan sedang berlangsung pada saat kegiatan lain terjadi.

Contoh :
(+)They will have been studying English for 2 hours by the time I arrive.
(-) They will not have been studying English for 2 hours by the time I arrive.
(+) Will they have been studying English for 2 hours by the time I arrive

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